What methods of application?
Between encouragement …
City, couples are asked to sign a contract in which they agree to have only one child. In exchange, submissive couples remain a priority for the allocation of housing, access to childcare or free medical care, and better schooling for their children they are guaranteed.
In family planning clinics, women are offered a genuine information on contraceptives and the possibility to choose between various methods.
And constraints …
Couples who refuse to comply with the restrictive measures could at best increase their taxes tax.
It can result in a loss of business benefits, the worst loss of employment. And in all cases feel “shame” social befall them.
Measures are imposed by force, such as the upward revision of the age of marriage.
To an easing of restrictive measures
Strong unpopular measures encountered in the countryside led to a rapid easing measures in those regions where the weight of tradition is increased.
Since 1984, campaigns have a privilege compared to cities: a second birth is allowed if the first child is a girl.
Similarly, ethnic minorities have very quickly “preferential treatment.” The Uighur Xinjiang as Tibetans are allowed to have up to 3 or 4 children.
Late 90s, downtown, one child remains the rule. But, faced with an aging population, there is again a relaxation of the rules.
In Shanghai, for example – 13 million at the time – and in some areas of Beijing, a woman is no longer required to seek permission from his employer or his neighborhood committee before starting a first pregnancy.
In case of a second pregnancy, she no longer sees impose an abortion or tubal ligation.
In 1997, urban couples composed of two only children get the right to have two children even if the first is a boy.
In 2002, the National People’s Congress passed a law easing the control exercised by the state over the family.
Under the new law, couples are allowed to have more children if they pay a “social compensation fee” amounting to 600 euros for a new child. Farmers are financially unable to pay such a sum, which can be up to two, three or even four times their monthly income.
Since 2004, the government pays about 120 euros annual pension for couples who have one daughter, as a reward for obeying the model only child, and as an incentive for young people.
So we would go to a political reward more than coercion.
An idea that is beginning to make its way into the countryside. With the influx of peasants into the cities and the acceleration of urbanization, the development of the birth of the peasants has changed. The enormous expense required for the education of children tends to change behavior: couples no longer wish to have only one child to reduce the financial burden they represent.
During the 25 years of implementation of the policy of birth control measures have certainly helped to reduce the fertility rate of 5.7 children per woman to 1.8, “avoid” about 400 million birth thus delaying the passage of four years the world population of 6 billion people.